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How do I cite resources in a bibliography?

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Citing Print Resources

Print resources can be books, encyclopedias, magazines or newspapers. Sources that are citied in  your essay or which are not directly referred to in the essay, but have been used for your research must be included in a bibliography. The model below, based on the Harvard style, shows the elements which need to be included and their order of presentation.

Doss, G 2003, IS Project Management Handbook, Aspen Publishers, New York.

  1. Author: (Surname, initial of first name)
  2. Date of publication
  3. Title (in italics)
  4. Publisher
  5. Place of publication:
Rees, R 2003, The Atlas of Ancient Egypt, Hamish Hamilton, Melbourne.

Encyclopaedia Article

  1. Article author
  2. Year
  3. Title of article (in single quotes)
  4. Title of encyclopaedia (italics)
  5. Publisher
  6. Place of publication
  7. Volume
  8. Pages
Fell, H 2007, 'Diadematacea', McGraw-Hill Encyclopaedia of Science and Technology, New York, vol.5, pp. 203-204.

Magazines, Journals or Newspaper Articles

  1. Author
  2. Date
  3. Title of article (in single quotes)
  4. Title of magazine or newspaper (in italics)
  5. Issue date
  6. Page(s) of article
Example: Colebatch, T 2009, 'Melbourne's Magnetism', Australian Literary Review, 26 May, pp. 16-17.

Citing Online Resources

Online resources could be from Internet sites, articles from online databases or emails

Here is the Harvard Style for citing these resources, with details of what needs to be included, and the correct order.

  1. Author/editor *
  2. Date (last update or copyright date)
  3. Title of web page
  4. Title of web site
  5. Access date
  6. Source: from <URL>
* Include these elements if available

Axelsen, J 2001, 'Whose homework is this anyway?', New Horizons for Learning, Accessed 6th June 2002, Source: from <>

Articles from online journals or newspapers

  1. Author of article
  2. Year of publication
  3. Title of article
  4. Title of journal
  5. Volume/Issue No
  6. Access date
  7. Source: from <URL>
  8. Page(s)
McKenzie, J 2008, 'Tech Smart: Making discerning technology choices', From Now On, Vol 11, No 8, Accessed 18th May 2009, Source: from <>


  1. Sender (email address)
  2. Date sent
  3. Subject
  4. Recipient (email address)
Parsons, G ( This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ) 10th February 2007, How to create a stunning web page, Email to Galapis, T ( This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ).

Citing Multimedia Resources

Multimedia sources could be from videos, CD-ROMs, DVDs or audio tapes
Here is one model, with details of what needs to be included, and the correct order of presentation.

Videos or DVDs

  1. Title
  2. Date (year)
  3. Identifier (format)
  4. Publisher
  5. Place of publication
The War in Europe 1983, DVD, History Channel, New York.

Audio cassettes or CDs

  1. Author (creator)
  2. Date (year)
  3. Title
  4. Identifier (format)
  5. Publisher
  6. Place of publication
Pryor, Boori Monty 1999, My Girragundji (CD) Louis Braille Audio, Melbourne.

Citing resources within your essay

You will need to directly or indirectly refer to some of the sources you use in your research within your assignment, either as a direct quote or by paraphrasing a concept. You will need to acknowledge these sources in the body of your work, and in a separate list of references at the end of your essay.

Wherever you refer to another person's views or words in your essay, even if you do not quote their words directly, you must acknowledge the source.The simplest way to do this is by using the Harvard style of citation, also known as the author-date system. Using this model, you simply insert the author's surname and the year of publication in brackets after your reference to their work. The other style of citation, known as the Oxford style is generally used in the Humanities, and involves the use of footnotes.

Predating the decline of communist idealogy, this modern myth of a revolution that went wrong (Orwell, 1945) is a classic work of political fiction.

Full details of the work you have briefly cited here will appear in your reference list.

Orwell, G 1945, Animal Farm, Penguin, London.

You may wish to directly quote another writer's work in support of your topic. To do this:

For a brief quotation (under 30 words)
Include the quotation in quotation marks, followed by the author, date and page number of the publication in brackets. The full reference is listed in the bibliography.

"Lenin's death and the succession struggle constituted a political turning-point" (Fitzpatrick 1994, p 110).

Long quotation (more than a sentence)
Indent the quotation from both the left and right margine of the document. You do not need to enclose it in quotation marks. Include the reference to the author either immediately before or after the quote.

Jones (1995, p 63) in his biography of Ned Kelly states:

           Ned Kelly was entered in the prison register as being 5ft
10ins; he was already tall for the times and not yet 16
- at least not until December. He passed the first three
months of 1871 here and was released in late March with
five weeks remission, to make his way home, down from
the ranges and over the Oxley Flats to Greta, the gap
and the Eleven Mile. His return was undoubtedly noticed
by Hall or drawn to his attention by one of his toadies.

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